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Strategi Marketing Mix

By admin - Tue Apr 03, 4:01 pm

Strategi marketing mix atau bisa juga disebut bauran pemasaran adalah kumpulan dari variabel-variabel pemasaran yang dapat dikendalikan yang digunakan oleh suatu badan usaha untuk mencapai tujuan pemasaran dalam pasar sasaran. Strategi marketing mix menurut Stanton (1978) adalah kombinasi dari 4 variabel atau kegiatan yang merupakan inti dari sistem pemasaran perusahaan yaitu produk, harga, kegiafan promosi dan system distribusi.

Ada banyak alat pemasaran, dan McCarthy mempopulerkan pembagian kiat pemasaran ke dalam 4 (empat) faktor yang disebut the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion.

Strategi marketing mix

Keempat bauran pemasaran tersebut secara singkat dijelaskan sebagai berikut:

  1. Product (produk) adalah segala sesuatu yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat untuk dilihat, dipegang, dibeli atau dikonsumsi. Produk dapat terdiri dari product variety, quality, design, feature, brand name, packaging, sizes, services, warranties, and returns.
  2. Price (harga), yaitu sejumlah uang yang konsumen bayar untuk membeli produk atau mengganti hal milik produk. Harga meliputi last price, discount, allowance, payment period, credit terms, and retail price.
  3. Place (tempat), yaitu berbagai kegiatan perusahaan untuk membuat produk yang dihasilkan/dijual terjangkau dan tersedia bagi pasar sasaran. Tempat meliputi antara lain channels, coverage, assortments, locations, inventory, and transport.
  4. Promotion (promosi), yaitu berbagai kegiatan perusahaan untuk mengkomunikasikan dan memperkenalkan produk pada pasar sasaran. Variabel promosi meliputi antara lain sales promotion, advertising, sales force, public relation, and direct marketing.

Strategi marketing mix yang menggunakan variable promosi atau yang lazim disebut bauran komunikasi pemasaran, meliputi:

  1. Advertising, yaitu semua bentuk presentasi nonpersonal dan promosi ide, barang, atau jasa oleh sponsor yang ditunjuk dengan mendapat bayaran.
  2. Sales promotion, yaitu insentif jangka pendek untuk mendorong keinginan mencoba atau pembelian produk dan jasa.
  3. Public relations and publicity, yaitu berbagai program yang dirancang untuk mempromosikan dan/atau melindungi citra perusahaan atau produk individual yang dihasilkan.
  4. Personal selling, yaitu interaksi langsung antara satu atau lebih calon pembeli dengan tujuan melakukan penjualan.
  5. Direct marketing, yaitu melakukan komunikasi pemasaran secara langsung untuk mendapatkan respon dari pelanggan dan calon tertentu, yang dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan surat, telepon, dan alat penghubung nonpersonal lain.

Bauran pemasaran yang terdiri dari product, price, place, dan promotion (4P) seiring perkembangan jaman dan tuntutan pasar yang senantiasa mengalami perkembangan telah mengalami evolusi dan terus berkembang searah dengan perkembangan perilaku konsumen dan kecerdasan para ahli pemasaran. Lovelock dan Wright (2002:13-15) mengembangkan bauran pemasaran (marketing mix) menjadi integrated service management dengan menggunakan pendekatan 8Ps, yaitu: product elements, place, cyberspace, and time, promotion and education, price and other user outlays, process, productivity and quality, people, and physical evidence.

Strategi marketing mix dengan pendekatan 8P antara lain adalah:

  1. Product elements adalah semua komponen dari kinerja layanan yang menciptakan nilai bagi pelanggan.
  2. Place, cyberspace, and time adalah keputusan manajemen mengenai kapan, dimana, dan bagaimana menyajikan layanan yang baik kepada pelanggan.
  3. Promotion and education adalah semua aktivitas komunikasi dan perancangan insentif untuk membangun persepsi pelanggan yang dikehendaki perusahaan atas layanan spesifik yang perusahaan berikan.
  4. Price and other user outlays adalah pengeluaran uang, waktu, dan usaha yang pelanggan korbankan dalam membeli dan mengkonsumi produk dan layanan yang perusahaan tawarkan atau sajikan.
  5. Process adalah suatu metode pengoperasian atau serangkaian tindakan yang diperlukan untuk menyajikan produk dan layanan yang baik kepada pelanggan.
  6. Productivity and quality, produktivitas adalah sejauhmana efisiensi masukan-masukan layanan ditransformasikan ke dalam hasil-hasil layanan yang dapat menambah nilai bagi pelanggan, sedangkan kualitas adalah derajat suatu layanan yang dapat memuaskan pelanggan karena dapat memenuhi kebutuhan, keinginan, dan harapan.
  7. People adalah pelanggan dan karyawan yang terlibat dalam kegiatan memproduksi produk dan layanan (service production).
  8. Physical evidence adalah perangkat-perangkat yang diperlukan dalam menyajikan secara nyata kualitas produk dan layanan.

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