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Metode untuk Menentukan Harga Jual Suatu Produk

By admin - Mon Jun 18, 5:09 pm

Metode untuk menentukan harga jual suatu produk sangat penting bagi Anda yang ingin berbisnis. Metode untuk menentukan harga jual suatu produk dalam jangka panjang juga akan mempengaruhi tingkat keuntungan yang akan Anda dapatkan. Ada dua pendekatan pokok yang bisa Anda gunakan untuk menentukan harga jual. Pendekatan pertama adalah pendekatan biaya. Pendekatan ini adalah penetapan harga biaya plus, penetapan harga mark-plus dan juga penetapan harga break even point (BEP). Pendekatan kedua adalah pendekatan pasar atau persaingan.

Metode untuk menentukan harga jual suatu produk

Metode pertama adalah penetapan Harga Biaya Plus (Cost-lus Pricing Method). Metode ini dilakukan dengan menghitung jumlah sleuruh biaya per unit ditambah jumlah tertentu untuk menutupi laba yang Anda inginkan pada unit tersebut (margin). Metode ini bisa dihitung dengan rumus: Biaya Total + Margin = Harga Jual. Contoh kasusnya adalah usaha jus buah. Misalkan Anda mendapatkan order untuk suatu acara sekolah sebanyak 100 gelas. Biaya yang Anda keluarkan sebesar Rp 400.000, dengan perincian sebagai berikut:

·         Biaya bahan baku : Rp 250.000

·         Biaya tenaga kerja : Rp 100.000

·         Biaya lain-lain : Rp 50.000

Jika Anda menginginkan laba sebesar 15% dari biaya total, maka rumusnya adalah: Harga Total = Biaya Total + Laba, yaitu Rp 400.000 + (15% x Rp 400.000) = Rp 460.000. Jadi, setiap jus yang Anda jual dikenai harga Rp 4.600.

Metode untuk menentukan harga jual suatu produk yang kedua adalah dengan penetapan harga mark-up (Mark-Up Pricing). Walaupun pada dasarnya penetapan harga dnegan metode ini hampir sama dengan metode pertama, tetapi sebagian besar pedagang atau pebisnis lebih suka menggunakan metode ini. Karena caranya lebih sederhana. Yaitu Anda membeli barang-barang dagangan kemudian harga jualnya Anda tentukan setelah menambah harga beli dengan sejumlah mark-up. Rumusnya adalah: Harga Beli + Mark Up = Harga Jual. Contoh kasusnya sangat sederhana, yaitu dengan Anda membuka usaha tas. Misalkan Anda membeli tas Y sebesar Rp 250.000. kemudian Anda ingin mendapatkan untung Rp 50.000 di tiap-tiap produk tas yang Anda jual. Maka jadinya Rp 250.000 + Rp 50.000 = Rp 300.000. Tetapi yang perlu diingat adalah keuntungan yang Anda dapatkan sebenarnya hanyalah sebagian dari biaya mark up tersebut. Hal ini dikarenakan Anda juga membutuhkan biaya lain-lain seperti transport, dan lain sebagainya.

Metode ketiga adalah penetapan harga Break Even (Break-Even Pricing). Metode ini adalah cara penetapan harga berdasarkan pada permintaan pasar dan juga masih memeprtimbangkan biaya. Usaha Anda dikatakan dalam posisi break even jika biaya yang Anda keluarkan sudah tertutup oleh keuntungan atau hasil penjualan. Cara penetapan harga break even ini bisa diterapkan dengan beberapa syarat, yaitu:

·         Seluruh biaya usaha Anda dapat digolongkan ke dalam biaya variable dan biaya tetap.

·         Biaya variable per unitnya tetap.

·         Seluruh barang yang Anda produksi akan terjual.

Metode untuk menentukan harga jual suatu produk yang keempat adalah penetapan harga dalam hubungannya dengan pasar. Jadi, dalam metode ini, penetapan harga tidak didasarkan pada biaya tetapi sebaliknya, yaitu harga yang menentukan biaya bagi usaha Anda.

Jadi, Anda bisa menentukan harga sama dengan tingkat harga pasar agar dapat ikut bersaing. Atau juga bisa ditentukan lebih tinggi atau lebih rendah dari tingkat harga dalam persaingan. Keputusan ini tergantung strategi dan segmentasi pasar Anda.

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