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Macam-Macam Pengembangan Usaha

By admin - Tue Feb 21, 2:53 pm

Pengembangan usaha biasa dilakukan dengan beberapa teknik, salah satunya yaitu melalui perluasan cakupan usaha. Pengembangan usaha dengan teknik pengembangan usaha melalui perluasan cakupan usaha sering juga dinamakan diversifikasi usaha. Saat ini, diversifikasi usaha dilakukan pada suatu bidang saja, misalnya di bidang pertanian disebut agroindustri, agrowisata, agrobisnis dan macam-macam diversifikasi lainnya. Di bidang jasa diversivikasi juga dilakukan, misalnya usaha jasa angkutan kota diperluas dengan jasa angkutan pariwisata.

Usaha join venture merupakan salah satu cara pengembangan usaha dengan menambah cakupan usaha. Join venture merupakan bentuk kerjasama antara perusahaan domestic dengan perusahaan asing. Pemerintah berwenang untuk mengetahui dan menyetujui perjanjian umum dan khusus antar pihak yang berjoin venture. Proses join venture dilakukan dengan perantara perwakilan perusahaan asing dan konsultan-konsultan. Pada proses terjadinya join venture, pihak-pihak yang terlibat ialah pabrik-pabrik merk luar negeri, agen tunggal, distributor dan lain-lain.

Pengembangan usaha

Pengembangan usaha terdapat beberapa cara yang dapat dilakukan yaitu trust, holding company, sindikat dan Kartel. Trust adalah suatu bentuk organisasi perusahaan yang didirikan untuk menghindari kerugian masing-masing anggota dan memperbesar keuntungan perusahaan. Trust dibentuk dengan menggabungkan beberapa perusahaan (merger) menjadi satu dan masing-masing perusahaan yang bergabung telah melebur diri (fusi), sehingga gabungan dari perusahaan-perusahaan itu menjadi sebuah perusahaan besar. Trust dapat mengeluarkan saham dan obligasi.

Adapun yang disebut dengan holding company yaitu sebuah perusahaan yang memiliki kondisi keuangan yang kuat dan dapat memiliki perusahaan-perusahaan lain dengan membeli saham-sahamnya. Perusahaan yang telah dibeli saham-sahamnya tersebut tidak lagi memiliki kekuasaan apa-apa dan semua kebijakan ditentukan oleh holding company. Jadi, telah terjadi pengambilan kekayaan maupun kekuasaan dari perusahaan tersebut kepada holding company. Sedangkan sindikat merupakan kerjasama antar beberapa orang untuk melaksanakan proyek khusus di bawah satu perjanjian. Biasanya hanya terbatas pada bidang keuangan, yang dilakukan oleh kelompok investor untuk mengombinasikan sumber-sumber keuangan mereka, untukmenjualbelikan surat-surat berharga dari suatu perusahaan.

Pengembangan usaha berikutnya adalah yang disebut dengan kartel. Kartel ini hampir sama dengan sindikat. Kartel merupakan persekutuan antara beberapa perusahaan sejenis di bawah satu perjanjian tertentu. Masing-masing perusahaan tetap berdiri sendiri, memiliki kedudukan sama dan sewaktu-waktu dapat membatalkan perjanjiannya yang telah disetujui bilamana diinginkan. Mereka terikat pada semua perjanjian, tetapi diluar itumereka bebas. Ada beberapa jenis kartel yaitu kartel daerah, kartel produksi, kartel kondisi, kartel pembagian laba dan kartel harga.

Kartel daerah yaitu masing-masing perusahaan membagi daerah pemasaran yang boleh dikuasainya. Salah satu perusahaan tidak boleh menjual barangnya ke daerah lain. Kartel produksi, yaitu perusahaan mengadakan perjanjian untuk menentukan luas produksi masing-masing. Kartel kondisi, yaitu perjanjian yang mengatur syarat-syarat penjualan termasuk syarat penyerahan barang, tempat, penjualan tunai dan kredit, pemberian potongan dan sebagainya. Kartel pembagian laba, yaitu perjanjian dalam menentukan besarnya laba yang diterima oleh masing-masing anggota. Laba dibagi berdasarkan besarnya volume penjualan yang dicapai oleh masing-masing anggota. Sedangkan kartel harga merupakan perjanjian yang diadaka untuk menentukan harga minimum dari barang-barang yang dijual, sehingga bentuk ini dapat mengurangi persaingan harga diantara para anggota. Dari uraian tersebut terlihat bahwa pengembangan usaha dapat dilakukan melalui perluasan cakupan usaha dengan mengembangkan jenis usaha baru dan wilayah usaha baru, serta jenis produk barang dan jasa baru yang bervariasi jenisnya.

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